1830 Revolution – July Revolution in France History
Bourbon king’s tyrannical rule was the reason for 1789 French Revolution. Allied powers did the same mistake by choosing the bourbon kings, who do not care about the opinion of people, as the rulers of France. This decision of allied powers caused discontent among the people of France.
Louise XVIII was a clever king. During the initial years of his rule, he posed as a liberal ruler, but ultimately he inclined towards dictatorship. After assuming power in 1814, he announced Constitutional Charter. He said that this constitutional charter is intended for better administration. In reality it did not show any signs of better administration.
Right to vote was given to landlords and rich only.
Upper House members were not elected by the people. King himself elected the Upper House members for life time. Thus the Upper House became the house of Land Lords.
Unlimited powers were given to the king.
Parliament was deprived of the power of changing the decision of king.
Ministers were not answerable to the parliament, but to the king.
Due to above reasons Constitutional Charter was rejected by the people of France.
The conditions prevailing in France
- Ultra Royalists favoured king, who doesn’t care about public opinion.
They expected the government to pay compensation to the nobles who incurred loss during 1789 French Revolution.
- Moderate Royalists believed in Constitution. They favoured Constitutional Monarchy.
- Liberalists expected the Constitutional Charter to be more liberal, and more useful to the common people.
- Some opined that either Napoleon or his descendants should be made king.
- Some opined that as monarchy was completely failed to satisfy the common people, it should be replaced with democratic government. They also opined that Republican should be given a change to form the government.
Except Ultra Royalists remaining all favoured removal of Bourbon Dynasty. Louise XVIII was succeeded by his brother Charles X. Immediately after assuming power, he imposed restrictions on Press, Freedom of Speech, Louise XVIII was succeeded by his brother Charles X. Immediately after accession, Charles X imposed restrictions on press, writings by intellectuals and freedom of speech. He gave more importance to church. Between 1827 to 30 he suspended Chamber of Deputies thrice.
He established for the priestly class, of the priestly class and by the priestly class government. He paid compensation to priestly class and nobles who incurred losses during French Revolution of 1789.
Charles X – Polignac
Charles X preferred the ministers who support him without any second thought. Polignac used to support any decision taken by Charles X. Charles X suspended Chamber of Deputies when it raised No Confidence Motion against Poignac in the year 1830.
When Charles was ruling without considering the opinion of people, as already there was restriction on press, writings by intellectuals and freedom of speech, there had no option except revolution.
26 July 1830 – The decision of suspending the Chamber of Deputies on 26 July 1830 resulted in revolution. Charles X reduced the number of voters and gave notification for election.
1830 Revolution (July Revolution)
Charles X did not care a fig for the reaction of people in the form of revolution, due to his decision of suspending the Chamber of Deputies.
Moderates, Republicans, Nationalists advocated the people to be ready for an armed rebellion. The revolution was commenced by the journalists and students, peasants, and republicans joined hands with them.
Charles used army to suppress the revolution. It led to cold war. రాజ్యంలో అంతర్యుద్దం చోటు చేసుకుంది. Totally 10,000 revolutionists participated in the revolution. Though the number is very less when compared to the army, with perfect strategy revolutionist achieved success in a very short span. Revolutionists closed the main streets with big boulders and barricades to hinder the moment of the army. Within a short span of three days, revolutionists captured the imperial palace. These three days are commemorated in the history of France as the Glorious three days.
Charles had to make an announcement withdrawing his decision of suspending Chamber of Deputies. But it was too late. People’s anger could not be subsided. Charles X had to flee to England along with his family.
Importance of July 30 Revolution
Though the revolution could not produce any long lasting political results, it is a mile stone in the history of France. Upper Bourbons were removed from power and the Orleans, who were considered as the Lower Bourbons came to power.
- Monarchy lost it legitimacy and public opinion was valued.
- Dictatorship was replaced with Louise Philippe’s Constitutional Monarchy.
- It established the objectives Liberty , Equality and Fraternity of 1789 Revolution.
- 1830 July revolution could achieve the objectives which 1789 French Revolution Could not achieve. Liberty, Equality and Fraternity were safeguarded.
- Before July Revolution, Priestly Class and Nobles enjoyed unlimited powers and privileges. They had to lose them after July Revolution.
- July Revolution inspired Spain, Portugal, Poland, Belgium, England, Switzerland and Germany. People of these nations not only revolted against monarchy but also expressed resentment against resolutions taken in Congress of Vienna.
- New Governments were formed on the principle of Balance of Power. In Great Britain also people expressed interest in Democracy. Metternich’s ideology lost its credibility.