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INDUS VALLEY | Harappan CIVILIZATION

INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION

Major settlements are in Gaggar, Hakra river belt.
Mediterranean, Proto Austroloid, Mongoloid, and Alpines formed the bulk of the population.
Mediterranean and Proto-Austroloid were more in number.
Usually town was divided into 2 parts.
(1) Raised citadel- meant for elite, rulers dwellings.
(2) Lower town- common people lived.
*Dholavira is the only Indus city with 3 parts- Middle town was extra feature.
Kotdiji, Amri, Harappa, Kalibangan and Banwali are associated with Pre-Harappan.
Harappa, Mohenzodharo, Kalibangan, Lothal- Matured Phase of civilization.
Rangpur, Rajdi later phase.

SOCIETY:
Garments of cotton and wool.
Red or black pottery.
Gopper, bronze, silver, gold were known. Don't know Iron.
Script- pictographic.
Writing style Boustrophedon. (Right Left and Left Right)
Seals- Made up of steatite.
Wore beads.

ECONOMY:
Bead making factory existed in Chanhudharo and Lothal.
Beads were Items of export.
Nippur, a Mesopotamian city, seals found with Harappan script and a unicorn was depicted on it.
Indus seals found at Ur, Kish, Umma, Tel asmar.
In Mohenzodharo three cylindrical seals of the Mesopotamian type have been found.
Button seal has been found in Lothal.
Sargon, the famous king of Akkad, boast of Harappan ships mooring at his capital.
The course of ships. Dilmun(Bahrine)Magan(Makran)Meluha(Indus)
Lothal had a dockyard.
Rangpur, Somanath, Balakot were seaports.
Sutkagendor, Sutkakoh were outlets.
Bronze model of cart with a seated deiver found.
The weight followed a binary system in the lower denominations.
1,2,4,8,……64. then going to 160.
Then in the decimal multiples of 16, 320, 640, 1600, 3200 etc made of chert, limestone, steatite etc.
They are generally cubical in shape.
The measure of lenth were based upon a unit of foot of 37.6 Cms.


RELIGION:
Sacred ritual spots found.
Mythical beasts like on with fore part of humans and hind parts of tiger were worshipped.
At Kalibangan and Lothal fire altars were found.
Dead bodies were buried NorthSouth orientation.
In some cases dead were buried with ornaments. A coffin burial has been found at Harappa.
In kalibangan a small circular pits containing large urns and accompanied by pottery have been found.
Lothal- Male and Female in each case buried together.

DELCINE:
Abandonment of the cities is roughly dated to about 1800B.C.
R.L.Raikes opined that earth quakes blocked the water passage of Indus water and a lake was formed in the area.
Lambrick opined that changes in the course of the river Indus could be the cause of the destruction of Mohenzodharo.
D.P.Agarwal and Sood opined that increasing aridity in this area and drying up of the river Ghaggar-Hakra may be reason for the decline.
Wheeler opined that Aryan Invasion must be the reason for the decline. (Indhra`s title is Purandhara. Braker of forts.)
Rg veda mentions a place called Hariyupiya. The place sounds similar to Harappa.


MOHENZODHARO
Mohenzodharo= mound of dead. (Lothal=Mound of dead)
Mohenzodharo is also called as Naklisthan. (Naklisthan= Garden of Sind)
Archaeologists found 7 layers of the city. All the 7 layers were flooded and all the layers belong to mature phase.
Great bath. Every city contains one, but it is the biggest bath ghat.
Great bath was excavated by John Marshal. 39x23x8
Burnt bricks, mortar and gypsum was used for the construction of bathing ghat.
{Great bath, Lothal Dock yard and drainage were the 3 places where burnt bricks were used}
Largest city in terms of population. 35,000 to 41,000.
3rd lagest in terms of area.
{Area wise Harappa is the largest city
Gneriwala was the second largest city.(Near Bhawalpur, west Punjab)}
Great Granary.Huge structure- 150 length 50 breadth. Excavated by Mortimer wheeler. He identified it as the Great Granary.
Mohenzodharo is the completely excavated site.
Oblong Multi Pillared Hall also found. (20 pillars) All pillars were in square shape. It may be an assembly hall. 90X90ft.
A college like structure was found in citadel area.
In the lower town a temple like structure also found. (wheeler called it as the temple)
It has got a monumental entrance, 2 stair ways leading to the raised platform. On the platform rare stone sculpture of a seated figure is there.
Citadel was surrounded by a brick wall (harappa also same)
Corbelled drain was found.
Among all the Indus structures Mohenzodharo granary is the largest.
(2nd c.B.C.-1ST C.A.D. – under the Buddhist structure, a sthoopa, Mohenzodharo site was discovered. (Kushan period structure) largest number of human bones were huddled together.
Bronze dancing girl. Female figurine in dancing posture. Fully nude. 14c.m.
This figurine was made up of lost wax method of casting.
Dayaram Sahani discovered dancing girl. Dayaram sahani opined that Devadasi system might have existed during Indus valley civilization period. (But first reference of Devadasi system comes from Kalidasa. 5th C. A.D.)
"Bronze dancing girl represents Devadasi system"- Dayaram Sahani.
Steatite image of Bearded man was found. Some scholors opined that he is a priest. On his shoulders a beautifully embroidered cloth was there.
Lime stone male head also found.
Terracotta toys of various animals with movable heads found. Monkey toy also found.
Some composite animals also found (animals with different other animal parts)
Human faced tiger. (same toy was found in Harappa also.
A bull with elephant trunk and horns of a ram.
A piece of woven cloth was found. (impression of cloth on a seal. Impression of cloth on a trough- at Alamgirpur)
Public well in each lane was found.
Evidence of smelting copper ore.

Seals
Max number of seals found at Mohenzodharo. 1000 seals.
Bull seal found only in Mohenzodharo.
Seal representing God. PASHUPATHI MAHADEVA. 3 heads, 2 horns, seated on a plat form and surrounded by animals.
Elephant and tiger on right side.
Rhino and bull on left side.
There were some deers at his feet.
Archaeologist named him as Pashupathi.
John Marshal named him as Proto Shiva.
3 cylindrical shaped seals (Sumerian) (the other place where mesopatamian seals were found was Kaligangan)
A seal with out any inscriptions.
Amulets made up of terracotta.
Ship symbol on an amulet.
Indus people got Demo phobia. (fear of demons)
Terracotta bullock cart also found
Woman of terracotta making duff (atta) Reference of domestic work by woman.
Stone lingams from Mohenzodharo. It indicated phallus worship.
Pashupathi seal and lingam made of stone were found. Based on this archaeologists came to a conclusion that pashupathi mahadeva is shiva.
Jaw bone of a horse is found.
Many scholars believe that the horse is alien to India. (in Rg veda the word Ashwa (horse) was used 200 times.) horse was known to Harappans but it was not represented on seals.
Bronze saw was found. Copper implements also found.








HARAPPA
1921 and 1934 M.S.WATTS excavated.
It was first seen by Charles Mason in the year 1826.
In the years 1853&73 Alexander Cunningham visited this place.
483K.M. away form Mohenzodharo.
Harappa is the northern capital of Indus civilization.
Largest in terms of area. (2nd largest Ganeriwala Punjab.)
6 granaries in 2 rows. Each 50ftX20ft.
Granaries are situated outside the citadel area near the river Raavi.
Immediately next to the granaries on the west side series of brick platforms were identified. They formed base for the 2 rows of 6 granaries.
On the south side of the granaries there found rows of Brick platforms in circular shape. They were constructed to thresh the grain.
Barracks/rows of single roomed tenements are situated just below the wall of the citadel. (Laborers houses)
Evidence of further strengthening of defensive walls at later phase.
Coffin burial.
Citadel was surrounded by a brick wall. (Mohenzodharo also same)
At Harappa and Chanhudharo an alien culture immediately followed the Indus valley civilization.

Anthropomorphic figures in copper were found.
Reversed slip ware found. (Lothal also)
Bronze bullock cart and ikkas. (Ikka= cart pulled by human beings)
Similar Ikkas and Bullock carts were found at Chanhudharo also.
Nearest construction to the sea is granary.
A bronze seal.
Burial ground. 1 cemetery in "H" shape. H cemetery was found in citadel area.
South to Harappa(out side harappa )R 57 cemetery was found.
Harappa is the only place where a wood coffin was found.
Only site for coffin burial.
Large number of grave goods found. (12 bronze mirrors, 4 ladens. Big spoons. Antimony rod)
Urn burial also found. There were so many types of burials.

Figurines:
Dancing male figure of grey stone.
John Marshal shay that, he is shiva in Nataraaja form.
In one seal a tree was growing from the womb of a woman. Scholors opined that she is goddess of fertility.


CHANHUDHARO
Chandudharo is the only Indus site without a citadel.
Like Mohenzodharo it was also flooded more than once.
Small pot waas found. (Ink pot?)
Metal workers`, shell workers` and bead makers` shops. (Lothal also)
(Metals used: gold, silver, copper, tin and other metal)
Use of lipstick by a woman.
Evidence of people immigrating from colder regions.
Shell working (Lothal and Balakot)
Harappa and Chandhudharo an alien culture immediately follow Indus culture.












KALIBANGAN
Pre-Harappan to mature Harappan phase.
One of the two Indus sites, which have both proto-Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. (Banwali is the other site)
Ploughed fields of proto Harappan phase and
Dug fields of Harappan phase.
Remains of massive brick walls around citadel and lower town.
2 platforms with fire altars with in the citadel. (Lothal also)
1 inch human figure made up of terracotta was found.
Round grave yards.
Ornamented bricks were found in a house.
A building with flooring of tiles bearing a design of circles.
Evidence of existence of rhinoceros. ( Amri also)
Small terracotta human figurine head with thick lower lip and pointed nose was found.
Width of lanes and streets follow a set ratio.







BANWALI
Evidence of both proto Harappan and Harappan cultural phases.(kalibangan aslo)
Pre Harappan to mature Harappan in a sequence. (Kalibanga also)
Barley was discovered.
Terracotta figure of plough was found.





SURKOTADA
Bones of a horse. Remains of horse actually found here. (only Indus site for horse remains)
Surrounded by a stone rubble fortification with square bastions at the cormers and in the longer sides.
Must be another port city. (No docking facilities found)






DHOLAVIRA
One of the largest Indus sites. Largest in India.
Dr. JAGAPATHI JOSHI excavated Dholavira.
1990-91 R.S.Bist carried on the excavations further.
Dholavira is the only Indus city with 3 prats. (all other Indus cities are divided into 2 parts). 2 parts were protected by strong rectangular fortifications.
2inner enclosures:
1st one hemmed in the citadel. Here lived the highest autority of the society.
2nd one protected middle town. Here lived the close relatives of the rulers and officials. This middle town is the real exclusive feature of the city.
Hoard of copper images.
Figure of bronze chariot tied to a pair of bullocks and driven by a nude human.
LOTHAL
Lothal= mound of dead. (Mohenzodharo= mound of dead)
Also called as mini Harappa.
Lothal is the only Indus site with an artificial brick dock yard.
Lothal must have served as the main sea port.
Nearly rectangular with larger axis running from north--south.
Surrounded by a brick wall which served the purpose of protection from floods.
Lower town also fortified.
Earliest cultivation of rice. 1800B.C. (Earliest africultural community-MEHR GARH)
At Rangpur rice husk was found. (rangpur- near Ahmadabad)
Metal workers`, shell ornament makers` and bead makers` shops found at Lothal (Chanhudharo is the other place)
Shell workers-- Balakot, Chanhudharo.
Fire altars found (In Kalibangan also)
Terracotta figurines of a horse. (did they use horse? This doubt is not yet cleared.)
Impression of cloth on some sealings.
(Fragment of a woven cloth- Mohenzodharo)
(Impression of cloth on trough- Alamgirpur)
Shown 5 sequences of culture.
Houses are made of mud brocks. (Kalibangan is the other site). Lothal is the only site where the houses had opening at main street. All other Indus cities had opening at the back side of the house.
Practice of trephination was prevalent.
Painted jar was found.
Reversed slip ware found at Lothal (other site is Harappa)
Male and female were buried together. (Practice of sati?)
Sealings are lying among the ashes of a warehouse.
Copper ingots found. (they are similar to those found in Persian gulf)
Brick basin (219X37Mtrs) found.
Advanced system of water management was found.
Pre Harappan and Harappan cultures (Ropar is the other site)
Button seal has been found in Lothal.


SUTKAGENDOR
Near Iranian boarder.
Massive fortification wall of semi undressed stones found.
Bangles of clay were found. ( Baked/ burnt bangles at Kalibangan)


RANAGUNDAI

Teeth of a horse.


NESADI
Evidence of cattle breeding.
****************************************************************
important links for this article are....
http://www.harappa.com/har/indus-saraswati.html (for latest discoveries)
http://www.harappa.com/figurines/index.html (for figurines)
http://www.harappa.com/baluch/index.html (baluchisthan)
http://www.harappa.com/rohri/index.html (the rohri flint quaries)





History Study Material for Competitive Exams
INDUS VALLEY | Harappan CIVILIZATION

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