Buddhism. Buddha in Sanskrit means ‘the enlightened one.’
Shuddhodhana was ruling Kapilavastu, a province in Nepal. Siddhartha was born to him in 563 B.C. His mother was Mayadevi. When the Queen gave birth to his only son Siddartha astrologers predicted that the child would become an ascetic. Feared the king didn’t allow his son to go outside his palace. As Mayadevi, the original mother of Siddhartha passed away after his death, his step mother Gouthami raised him up. However in his youth, the Prince Siddartha who was married to Yashodhara went around the city found few scenes that made him miserable. He saw an ailing patient and an old aged person. At another instance he observed a dead body carried by four men. Siddartha got dejected. He had a son Rahula. At the first instance when Siddhartha waned to run away from home, the birth of his first son took place. Due to that Siddhartha had to postpone his programme. That is the reason Siddhartha named his son as Rahuludu. Because the way Rahu causes eclipse, Rahula also caused changes in Siddhartha`s plan. He renounced the worldly pleasures and at the age of 29 he left family to become a wandering ascetic. He had left all the royal comforts behind in search of peace and truth. ‘Chenna’ was the name of Buddha`s charioteer and they rode on the horse .Kanthaka’. He went to several places, met many scholars and saints. But no where and from nobody he got any satisfaction. He started hard meditation. After six years of rigorous meditation and fasting he obtained enlightenment when he was sitting in meditation under a pipal tree in Gaya. Siddartha became the enlightened or Buddha. The Pipal tree or the holy tree under which he got enlightenment became ‘Bodhi tree.’ For the rest f his life he travelled throughout North India preaching his message.
Buddha delivered his first sermon in Saranath near Benares before his five disciples who had earlier discarded him. Buddha’s chief message to the world is that the root cause of mankind’s suffering was desire. ‘I’o get rid of torment of desires Buddha narrated his eight fold path theory. The theory says, A man should have right belief, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right memory and right meditation.
Buddha had many disciples: Among them Ananda was very close to him and he learnt many things from Buddha. Once a lady Kisa gouthami approached Buddha praying him to give life to her dead child Buddha asked her to bring few mustard seeds from a house where death of anybody should not have occured. Kisa goutami went to many houses and returned to Buddha with bare hands. She realised that death is certain and everyone has to die one day or the other. She found in every house one or the other death had taken place.
Buddha comminted as some religious and social practices prevailed during his life time. He opposed the caste system. The followers of Gautama Buddha are called Buddhists. Buddha attained Nirvana in Kusi nara in 483 B.C. It is believed that Buddha is one of the ten incarnations of Lord Mahavishnu. He is also known as the light of Asia.