GOVERNOR GENERALS AND VICEROYS

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GOVERNOR GENERALS AND VICEROYS

Lord Ripon (1880 – 1884):
 Appointed by the liberal party under Gladstone. • 1st factory act(1881) to improve the condition of labour. The 1st Factory Act, 1881, aimed at prohibiting child labour. • Liberal person, who sympathized with Indians. • Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act (1882) • Passed the local self – government Act (1882) • Resolution on land revenue policy.(1882) • Appointed Hunter commission (for Education reforms) in 1882 Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William Hunter Commission’s recommendations). • Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later.

Lord Dufferin (1884 – 1888):
———————————— • Indian National Congress was formed during his tenure. • 3rd Burmese war (Annexation of Upper and lower Burma.

Lord Lansdowne
(1888 – 1894): —————————————– • II Factory Act (1891) granted a weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for women and children, although it failed to address concerns such as work hours for men. • Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate. • Indian Council Act of 1892 was passed.(Introduced Indirect elections) • Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan.

Lord Elgin II (1894 – 1899): ———————————— • Great famine of 1896 – 1897. Lyall Commission was appointed. • Assassination of two British officials by the Chapekar brothers in 1897. • Santhal uprising of 1899. • Convention delimiting the frontier between the frontier between China and India was ratified.

Lord Curzon
(1899 – 1905): ———————————— • The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 – 98 led him to create the North Western Frontier Province(NWFP). • Calcutta carporation act was passed (1899) • 189- A Sino British convention was organised to demarcate the boundary of the two nations. • Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act (1899) and put India on a gold standard. • Appointed a Police Commission in 1902 under Sir Andrew Frazer to enquire into the police administration of every province. • Set up the Universities Commission and according to its recommendations The Indian Universities Act (1904) was passed in which official control over the Universities was increased. • Set up the department of Commerce and Industry. • Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1904), to restore India’s cultural heritage. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India was established. • Partitioned Bengal (October 16, 1905) into two provinces 1, Bengal (proper), 2.East Bengal & Assam.( Most criticised act) • Extended railways to a great extent. • Created the new north west province between the Ministrative province and the Durand line.

Lord Minto II (1905 – 1910): ——————————— • Swadeshi Movement. • Foundation of the Muslim League.(1906) • Surath session and split in the Congress (1907) • There was great political unrest in India. Various acts were passed to curb the revolutionary activities. Extremists like Lala Laipat Rai and Ajit Singh (in May, 1907) and Bal Gangadhar Tilak (in July, 1908) were sent to Mandalay jail in Burma. • News papers act (1908) • The Indian Council Act of 1909 (Morley – Minto Reforms) was passed.

Lord Hardinge-II (1910 – 1916): —————————————- • To celebrate the coronation of King George V,.held a durbar in dec, 1911 • Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911), • Capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911). • A bomb attack on him; but he escaped unhurt (Dec 23, 1912). • Gandhiji came back to India from S.Africa (1915). • Establishment of Hindu Maha Sabha by Madan Mohan Malavya.(1915) • Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement.

Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 1921): ——————————————— •

Homerule movement was launched by Tilak and Anniebesant. • A Women’s university was founded at Poona in 1916. • Champaran satyagraha. • Lucknow pact between Congress and Muslim league.1916 • Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage new educational policy. • Kheda styagraha 1918(Ahmadabad). • Montague`s August Declaration of 1917, whereby control over the Indian government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people. • The government of India Act in 1919 (Montague – Chelmsford reforms) was passed.(Repressive) • Constitutional reforms of 1919.

• Rowlatt Act of 1919; • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919). • Non – Cooperation Movement. • An Indian Sir S.P.Sinha was appointed the as the Governor of Bengal.

Lord Reading
(1921 – 1926): ————————————- • Rowlatt act was repealed along with the Press act of 1910. • Moplah rebellion (1921) took place in Kerala. • Prince of Wales visited India in Nov.1921. • Communist part was founded in 1921 by M.N.Roy. • Ahmedabad session of 1921. • Formation of

Swaraj Party. • Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922. •

Chauri chaura incident. • Holding of Simultaneous exams in England and India for ICS.(1923) • Gandhi called off Non Co-operation Movement. • Communal riots of 1923 – 25 in Multan, Amritsar, Delhi,….. • Kakory Train Robbery on Aug 9, 1925.(Nagpur) • RSS was founded in 1925. • Swami Shraddhanand, a great nationalist and a leader of the Arya Samajists, was murdered in communal orgy.

Lord Irwin (1926 – 1931): ———————————- • Butler Commission in 1927. • Simon Commission was appointed in 1927. • Simon Commission visited India in 1928. • All India Youth Congress-1928 • Nehru Report-1928 • Martydorm of Jatin Das after 64 days hunger strike in jail(1929). • Congress passed the Poorna Swaraj Resolution in 1929. • Dandi March (Mar 12, 1930). • Civil Disobedience Movement (1930). • First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930. • Gandhi – Irwin Pact (Mar 5, 1931) was signed, Gandhi withdrew Civil Disobedient Movement.

Lord Willington (1931 – 1936): —————————————- • Civil Disobedience Movement (1930) Continued. • Second Round Table conference in London in 1931. • On his return Gandhiji was again arrested and Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed in Jan 1932. • Communal Awards (Aug 16, 1932) assigned seats to different religious communities. Gandhiji went on fast in protest against such grant. • Third Round Table conference in 1932. • Poona Pact was signed. • Foundation of congress socialist party.(1934) • Government of India Act (1935) was passed. •

All India Kisan Sabha (1936)

Lord Linlithgow (1936 – 1944): —————————————– • Govt. of India Act enforced in the provinces. • 1st General Elections.(1936-37) • Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces. They remained in power for about 2 years till Oct 1939, when they gave up offices on the issue of India having been dragged into the II World War. The Muslim League observed the days as ‘Deliverance Say’ (22 December1939) • Churchill became the British PM in May, 1940. He declared that the Atlantic Charter (issued jointly by the UK and US, stating to give sovereign rights to those who have been forcibly deprived of them) does not apply to India. • Outbreak of World War II in 1939) • Forward Block formed in 1939. • Lahore resolution (1939) • August offer, 1940. • Cripps Mission in 1942. • Quit India Movement (August 8, 1942).

Lord Wavell (1944 – 1947): ————————————- • C.R. Formula.(1944) •

Wavell plan 1945 • Simla Conference.1945 • Arranged the Shimla Conference on June 25, 1945 with Indian National Congress and Muslim League; failed. • Cabinet Mission Plan (May 16, 1946). and acceptance of its proposals by congress. • Direct action day by Muslim League. 16th August 1946. • Elections to the constituent assembly were held and an Interim Govt. was appointed under Nehru. • First meeting of the constituent assembly was held on Dec. 9, 1946.

Lord Mountbatten
(Mar.1947 – Aug.1947): ——————————————————– • Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of free India. • June 3 Plan- according to which partition of India decided. • Introduced Indian Independence Bill in the House of Commons. • Appointment of 2 boundary commissions under Sir Cryil Radcliff. • Indian Independence Act passed by the British parliament on July 4, 1947, by which India became independent on August 15, 1947. • Retried in June 1948 and was succeeded by ).

C.Rajagopala Chari(21 June 1948-25 Jan 1950) ————————- • The first and the last Indian Viceroy of free India. Indian History modern India viceroys

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