Indian History Notes based on Government school books
Culture and Communication
Language, Writing and Great Books
- Swahili – is an African language.
- The languages part of Dravidian language family – Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannad, Gond.
- The languages part of Indo-Aryan language family – Sankrit, Hindi, Bengali, Marati.
- Which languages words became a part of Telugu – Sankrit, Marati, Arab, Parsi.
- ABIDES means – Roman Script.
- Script of Hindi language – Devanagari.
- Indus Valley peoples’ script –
- The source script for Devanagari, Telugu, Tamil – Brahmi script.
- Brahmi script is the main source for Indian languages scripts.
- Mukhathah mean – Word of mouth.
- Origin of the world is mentioned in – Naasadeeya Sooktham of Rg Veda.
- What are the two ithihaasas – 1. Raamaayana Mahabhaaratha.
Ancient stories, sciences were transformed from one person to another person in oral tradition. They were not written down.
- Raamaayana and Mahaabhaarath were broght into book form – 1600 Years ago.
- Jaathaka stories were written down between 1600 A.D. – 1800 A.D.
- Sangam literature was developed by Somany sages, poets and poetesses.
|Raamaayana||Vaalmmeeki||Known as Aadi Kaavya.
Written in Sanskrit.
|Mahaabhaashya||Pathanjali||Commentary to Panini Ashtaadhyaayi.|
|Jaathaka Stories||About Buddha’s previous incarnations.|
|Charaka Samhitha||Charaka||Book about Medicine.|
|Shushrutha Samhitha||Shushrutha||Explains about Surgery.|
|Ashtaadhyayi||Paanini||Sanskrit Grammar Book|
|Mahaabhaashya||Pathanjali||Commetary to Ashtaadhyayi.|
|Buddha Charithra||Ashvaghosha||1st Sanskrit Kavya / Poetic story.
|Amarakosham||Amarasimha||Written in Sanskrit.
Amarasimha – Court poet of Chandraguptha -2.
|Swapna vaasavadhatta||Bhasa||Bhaasa wrote 13 Dramas based on the stories of Raamaayana and Mahaabhaaratha.|
Sculptures and Buildings
- In Indian sub continent where the buildings with 7000 to 8000 years of ancestry were found – Baluchisthan.
- Earliest cities in India were build 5000 years ago.
- The places where earliest cities were constructed – Baluchisthan, Sindh, Punjab, Gujarath.
- Famous cities in bronze age – Harappa, Mohenjodharo, Kalibangan, Lothal.
- Another name for Harappan civilization – Sind Civilisation / Indus Valley civilization.
- Indus Valley civilization is an Urban Civilisation.
- Only civilization in the Indian subcontinent with underground drainage facility – Indus vallery civilization.
- Ship making industry was found at – Lothal.
- Measurements of Lothal ship making industry – East to West – 37 meters.
North to South – 22 Meters.
(It is not a ship making industry. It is an artificial dock yard.)
- The metal not known to Harappa people – Iron.
- Great Bath was found at – Mohenjodharo.
- The measurements of great bath found at Mohenjodharo – Width – 11.8 meters. Length – 7 meters.
- Capitols means – Royal symbols.
- Rampurva capitol – Bull capitol.
- Saranath – Lion capitol
- Sanchi pillar is located in Madhyapradesh.
- Where in Andhra a crystal box with Buddha’s relics is found? – Bhattiprolu.
- Amaravathi sthupa in Guntur was constructed 1900 years ago during the reign of Satavaahanas.
- Which dam submerged Vijayapuri, the capital of Ekshvaku kings? – Nagarjuna Sagar.
- Vihaaras – resting places of Buddhist monks.
- Where the cave viharas of Buddhist monks were found? – Nasik and Karle.
- The Buddhist viharas which grew as universities? –
Taxila, Nagarjunakonda, Nalanda.
- Fa-hi-an, Itsing and Hu- en-Tsang are the Chinese travelers visited India to see the places where Buddha lived.
- Hu- en-Tsang was a student at Nalanda University.
- Nalanda University is located in present day – Bihar.