Indian History Notes for General Studies purpose based on school books
Religion and Society
- The tamil books which tells about a hunting and food gathering community in Srikalahasthi area – Periyapuranam.
- Periya puranam is a book of 12th century A.D.
- The episode Bhaktha Kannappa is found in Periyapuraanam.
- Chenchus primary Goddess – Garela Maisamma / Gangamma.
- Burnt clay statue of Ammathalli / Mother Goddess is found at Mehrgarh.
- The people who depend on pastoral economy are called as
* Dhangars in Mahaaraashtra. * Kurubas – Karnataka
* Kuruma, Golla and Yadava – Telangana and Andhra
- The God worshipped by Dhangars in Mahaarashtra – Vitoba.
- The first ash mound settlements belonged to agriculture and pasture economy settlements were found in South India.
- 1st Indus Valley city unearthed in archaeological excavation – Harappa.
- The male God worshipped by Harappans – Lord Shiva.
- The Goddess worshipped by Harappans – Ammathalli / Mother Goddess.
- Along with the male God these animal can be seen in a Harappan seals – BETR
* Bull * Elepant * Tiger * Rhino
(Two deers at his feet)
- 1st piece literature in Indian subcontinent – Vedas.
- Vedas are 4. 1. Rg Ved 2. Yajurved 3. Sama Ved 4. Atharvan Ved.
- Most ancient veda is – Rg Veda.
- Rg Veda is written in – 3500 Years ago.
- Important Gods worshipped during Rg Vedic period – Agni, Indra, Soma.
- A God is named after a special plant from which a drink is made. Who is the God? – Soma. (Somalatha.)
- Who was the God of war during Vedic period – Indra.
- Where did Rg Vedic people lived? – A Place between Hindkush mountain ranges and Narmada valley.
- Varna system was emerged during – Vedic Period.
- The vedic society was divied into how many castes? – Four. 1. Brahmin 2. Kshathriya 3. Vaishya 4. Shudra.
- According to Yaagnavalkya and Uddalaka Aruni Brahmanam means the one which does not perish. Aathma and Brahmanam are similar words.
- Along with the dead Vedic people buried which coloured pots – Red and Black.
- Menhirs are – Big Stone boulders. (A big stone rected at the head of the dead. Used as tome stone or memorial stone)
- Sarcophagi – Iron or clay boxes. (Used to bury people)
- Dolmens – A small room like tomb.
- The story of Nachiketha can be found in – Katopanishath
- Famous sages are – Yaagnavalkya, Uddalaka aruni.
- Bikshuka – Those who wander.
- Parivrajakas – The one who search for truth.
- Great Parivrajakas – * Vardhamaana Mahaaveera * Gothama Buddha
- Makkaligosala Ajithakesh Kambali
- At the age of 30 Vardhamaana Mahaaveera became parivrajaka.
- Who said “desire are cause for sarrow” – Gouthama Buddha.
- Madhyamaarga / Middle Path is suggested by – Gouthama Buddha.
Buddha and his close associates preaching s are recorded in a book named – Tripitakas. (Pitaka = Box) Tripitakas are 3.
- Suttapitaka Vinayapitaka 3. Abidhamma Pitaka.
- Mahaveera propagated – Jainism.
- Gouthama Buddha propagated – Buddhism.
Devotion and Love towards God
- The word “Hindu” came into usage from 1000 A.D.
|India got its name due to the river Indus.
Aryans called it ‘Sindhu‘.
Iranians / Persians called it Hind. (Hindoosthan).
Greeks called it ‘Indos‘ (India)
Romans called it ‘Indus” (India).
- The word Hind is derived from the word “Sind”.
- Bhagavathas worship – Vishnu or Narayana.
- The principle diety worshipped in Gudimallam is – Lord Shiva.
- Gudimallam is located in Chittoor District.
- Shivas worship – Lord Shiva.
- Thirthankaras are – Jain Gurus.
- Jathaka Stories tell about the previous incarnation of Lord Buddha.
- Puranas tell about Lord Shiva and Vishnu.
- Bhakthi movement was started for the first time in Tamilnadu, in the year 550 A.D.
- Alwars are worshippers of Lord Vishnu.
|1.||God||Lord Vishnu||Lord Shiva|
|3.||Songs / Hymns||Pashuras||Tevarams / Tiruvaachakas|
|4.||Important Devotees||· Periyalwar
|5.||Women Devotees||· Andaal||· Karaikkalamm
- Jesus Christ was born at – Bethlehem (Israel).
- Thomas Basilica church was build in the year – 1523. It is located in Chennai.
- The holy book of Christians – Bible.
- The famous speech ‘Cermon on the mountain’ was delivered by – Jesus Christ.
- 1st person to propagate Christianity in India was – St. Thomas.
- The religion established by Prophet Mohammad – Islam.
- Prophet Mohammad was born in Mecca, in the year 570 A.D.
- The holy book of Islam – Quran.
- 1st Mosque to be built in India – Cheraman mosque, Kerala.
|Sura al ikhlas
“The truth is: Allah is One. Allah is
Besought of all, needing none. He
neither begot anyone, nor was
begotten. And equal to Him has never
been any one.”