Indian History Study Material in English

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New Kingdoms – Kings

  1. Raashtrakutas were the feudatories of – Chalukyas.
  2. Hiranyagarbha ceremony was performed by Danthidurga.
  3. Kadamba Mayura Sharma and Goorjara Pratheehara Harishchandra belong to Brahmin caste.
  4. Founder of Raashktakuta dynasty – Danthidurga.
  5. 1st part of an inscription – Eulogy (Eulogy = Prashasthi. Praising.)

In eulogy details of the rulers, their family, their ancestors, rulers’ victories and greatness are mentioned.

  1. The inscription which explains about Nagabhattu victories is – Gwaliar inscription. (Madhyapradesh.)
  2. Kalhana wrote Rajatharangini in 12th century A.D. It is the history of Kashmir kings of 5th
  3. Ghoorjara Prathihaaras , Palas and Raashtrakootas fought for the suzerainty over which place? – Kanauj. Kanauj is located in Ganga valley. This struggle is known as “tripartite struggle”.
  4. Mohammad Gajani is from – Afghanistan.
  5. The period Mohammad Gajani ruled Afghanistan – 997 A.D. – 1030 A.D.
  6. Who plundered Somnath Temple? Mohammad Gajani.
  7. Who was the scholar came to India along with Mohammad Gajani? – Al beruni.
Anaartha – Part of Gujarath Vanga – Part of Bengal
Malva – Part of Madhya Pradesh Kalinga – Part of Odisha.
  1. Nagabhattu belongs to Ghoorjara Prathihara dynasty.
  2. Which dynasty rulers instructed to look after the responsibility of irrigation – Cholas.
  3. Chauhans / Chahamanas ruled – Ajmeer and Delhi.
  4. Which chouhan ruler defeated Mohamma of Ghori in the year 1191 – Pruthviraj chouhan – III.
  5. Pruthviraj – 3 ruled from 1168 A.D. – 1192 A.D.
  6. When did Mohammad of Ghori defeated Pruthviraj – 3 ? – 1192.
  7. Who ruled Kanchipura – Pallavas.
  8. Chola dynasty was established by – Vijayaalaya.
  9. Cholas belong to Urayur.
  10. The Pallava feudatories who ruled Kaveri delta – Mutharayar family.
  11. Who built Thanjavur? – Vijayaalaya.
  12. Nishambhusoodini temple was built by Vijayaalaya.
  13. Pandya and Pallava kingdoms were part of Chola Kingdom.
  14. Greatest king of Chola dynasty – Rajaraja – 1.
  15. Rajaraja – 1 came to throne in the year – 985 A.D.
  16. Rajendra -1’s father – Rajaraja – 1.
  17. The chola king who invaded on Srilanka and South East Asian countries and Ganga valley – Rajendra -1.
  18. The chola king who developed fleet – Rajendra – 1.
  19. The chola king who constructed Gangaikonda Cholapuram – Rajendra – 1.
  20. The temples built by Chola kings became centres for handicrafts.
  21. Chola kings constructed anicuts to save villages from floods and dug canals for irrigation.
  22. Chola kings divided kingdom into – Mandalam – Valanadu – Nadu.
  23. Ur – Settlements of peasants.
  24. Groups of such Ur’s formed larger units called
  25. Vellala Caste peasants were rich during Chola period.
  26. Rich peasants of the Vellala
  27. Vellala caste exercised considerable control over the affairs of the nadu under the supervision of the central Chola government.
  28. The titles given to rich land owners during chola period – 1. Muvendavelan
  29. araiyar
  30. Muvendavelan – a velan or peasant serving 3 kings.
  31. Araiyar  – chief.
  32. Nagaram – Association of merchants during Chola period.
  33. Periyapuranam is in — language. – Tamil.
  34. Periya Puranam mentions Pulayus who live in Adanooru village.


  1. 1st ruler to start local self governance – Cholas.
  2. Uttarameroor inscription of Cholas mentions Cholas local self Government.
  3. Uttarameroor inscription was found in Chengalpattu district of Tamilnadu.
  4. Cholas organized committees to Sabha through elections.
  5. Minimum qualifications to the member of Sabha during Chola period.
a.      All those who wish to become members of the sabha should be owners of landfrom which land revenue is collected.

b.      They should have their own homes.

c.      They should be between 35 and 70 years of age.

d.      They should have the knowledge of theVedas.

e.      They should be well-versed in administrative matters and be honest.

If anyone has been a member of any committee in the last three

years, he cannot become a member of another committee.

f.       Anyone who has not submitted his accounts, including details of his relatives, cannot contest the elections.


  1. Various types of lands during Chola Period.
Vellanvagai Land of non-brahmin proprietors
Shalabhoga Land for the maintenance of a school
Brahmadeya Land gifted to brahmins
Devadana, Tirunamattukkani Land gifted to temples
Pallichchhandam Land donated to Jaina institutions

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