Indian National Movement / Freedom Struggle
- East India Association 1866 by Dadabai Nauroji.
- The Indian National Congress:
* The Moderate Phase – 1885-1905
* Extremist Phase – 1905-1920
* The Last Phase 1919-1947
- 1st session of Indian National Congress – 1885 December 28.
- Who presided over the 1st session of INC ? Womesh Chandra Bannerjee. (WC Bannerjee.)
- How many delegates attended 1st session of INC – Indian National Congress? 78 Delegates.
- In 1886, for second Indian National Congress Session 436 delegates were elected to the Congress.
- The retired British official who played important role in establishing INC – Indian National Congress was A. O. Hume.
- 3 Major Objectives o INC:
- To build a nationalist consciousness among the diverse people of India and unite them.
- To create a common political platform or programme around which political workers in different parts of the country could gather and conduct their political activities.
- To promote democratic ideals and functioning in India.
- Kadambari Ganguli was the first woman graduate from Calcutta.
- Leaders like Naoroji, R.C. Dutt and Ranade studied the economic impact of the British Rule.
- Proposal for the partition of Bengal into East and West Bengal in 1903 by Curzon.
- Bengal was partitioned in 1905.
- With th Swadeshi Movement around 1903, the Indian national movement took a major leap forward. (Decision taken in 1903, Actually partitioned in 1905)
- To resent against the partition of Bengal, people boycotted foreign goods, Schools, colleges, courts and clothes. This is known as Swadeshi Movement.
- The Swadeshi
Movement gave tremendous impetus to Indian industry. In fact, beginnings were made in the manufacture of Swadeshi salt, sugar, matches and other products on a large-scale. The movement gave a stimulus to P. C. Ray’s Bengal Chemical Works, and encouraged Jamshedji Tata of Bombay to open his famous Steel Plant in Bihar. The movement also created tremendous demand for indigenous goods. The textile industry of India, in particular received a great impetus from the Swadeshi movement.
- Who gave the famous slogan, “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it.” – Bal Gangadhar Tilak
- The policy of moderate nationalist is known as “Political mendicancy” (Political Begging).
- Surat session of 1907 – Congress was split into two parts. Extremists were forced to leave congress.
- When did Tilak came back from exile? – in 1915
- Who started home rule movement? – Annie Besant.
- Lucknow Pact 1916 – Moderates and Extremists were united.
- The First World War : 1914–1919
- 24. “Vande mataram” was written by – Bankim Chandra Chetterjee.
- When Bengal was divided, People tied Rakhis to each other show their unity
- Meetings were conducted to show resentment against partition of Bengal. Ananda Mohan Bose and Surendranath Banerjee addressed two mass meetings attended by about 75,000 people.
- Krishna Patrika of Machilipatnam – was founded by Mutnuri Krishna Rao in 1902.
- Mahatma Gandhi arrived in India in 1915 from South Africa.
- Gandhi’s first movement in India was 1917 Champaran Satyagraha.
- Champaran Satyagraha is for the just rights of Indigo farmers on Bihar.
- Gandhi’s second movement in India was Kheda Satyagraha.
- Kheda satyagraha 1918 is for the just rights of textile mill workers in Kheda, Ahmedabad, Gujarath.
- In 1919, Gandhi gave a call for satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act that the British had just passed.
- Which act curbed the fundamental rights such as the freedom of expression and strengthened police powers. Any person who was suspected by the police of being a terrorist could be arrested and kept in prison without trial. Even when tried, it would be a secret trial in which even the tried person could not see the evidence against him or her.
- Indians called which act as devilish? – Rowlatt Act 1919.
- Secularism means – The government should neither interfere in the affairs of a religion nor allow any religion to interfere with the government.
- Communalism – to promote the interests of one religion over the others and insists that governments abide by the needs of particular religions.
- A group of Muslim landlords and nawabs formed the All India Muslim League at Dhaka in 1906.
- Hindu Mahasabha was formed in 1915 with the objective of uniting Hindus and reconverting those who had converted to other religions.
- 6 April 1919 – Gandhiji asked the Indian people to observe a day of nonviolent opposition to this Act, as a day of “humiliation and prayer” and hartal (strike).
- The Rowlatt Satyagraha was the first all-India struggle against the British government.
- . Jalianwala Bagh Massacre — Jalianwala Bagh is in Amritsar, Punjab. On 13 April General Dyer opened fire on a peaceful public meeting, in which about 400 people were killed and thousands injured.
- To show resentment against which incident Rabindranath Tagore renounced knighthood given to him by the British Government? – Jalianwala Bagh Massacre.
- 1920 Khilafat Movement – British banned the Khalifa system. To protest against this Khilafat movement was called for. Gandhi expressed his solidarity to the movement.
- Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali were the leaders of Khilafat Movement.
- 1920 – Non Cooperation Movement. Nagpur session of the Congress in 1920,
Gandhiji was acknowledged as the leader of the Congress. In this session, the objective of the Congress was changed to the achievement of Swarajya by all legitimate and peaceful means. Non- Cooperation was accepted as the means to get Swarajya.
- Chirala Perala Movement – British Government wanted to convert Chirala and Perala as a municipality and imposed high taxes. About 15,000 People under the leadership of Duggirala Gopala Krishnaiah moved to a new settlement named Ramnagar to avoid taxes. They lived there for 11 months until British Govt. withdrew its decision.
- peasants of Pratapgarh in the United Province (now Uttar Pradesh) managed to stop illegal eviction of tenants.
- Chauri Chaura incident – Gandhi abruptly called off the Non-Cooperation Movement when, in February 1922, a crowd of peasants set fire to a police station in Chauri Chaura. Twenty two policemen were killed on that day. The peasants were provoked because the police had fired on their peaceful demonstration.
|50. Civil Disobedience Movement: Salt Satyagraha (1930-32)|
|51. Who presided over 1929 Lahore Congress Session – Jawahar Lal Nehru.
52. In which congress session attaining POORNA SWARAJ was set as a goal – Lahore Congress Session.s
53. In which congress session declaration was made to celebrate 26th January as the day of “Purna Swaraj”.? Lahore Congress Session.
54. On March 12th, 1930 Mahatma Gandhi decided to break the government salt laws. (later several other laws were broken)This event came to be known as Civil Disobedience Movement.
55. On March 13th, 1930 Gandhi started his trek from Sabarmati to Dandi, a small village on the Gujarath coast
56. The march began with Gandhi and 78 companions.
57. Total distance of the trek – 375 KM.
58. 375 KM distance was completed in 24 days. (15.625 KMs per day.)
59. During this movement 1600 women were imprisoned in Delhi alone.
60. Over 90,000 Satyagrahi’s including Gandhi and other Congress leaders were imprisoned.
- Act of 1935 prescribed provincial autonomy and the government announced elections to the provincial legislatures in 1937.
- In 1937 elections the Congress formed governments in 7 out of 11 provinces.
- Quit India Movement – 1942 ‘Do or Die’