Landlords and Tenants under the British and the Nizam
- 1. During the Mughal empire who collected land revenue on behalf of emperor? – Zamindars.
- Gadi – Fort of Zamindar.
- Khudkhasht- Self cultivated land. Zamindars’ own lands.
- Land lords – Who cultivate zamindar’s lands for rent.
- Permanent Settlement / Zamindari Settlement was introduced in 1793. Zamindars participate in the auction to gain tax collection rights. They should pay 90% of the collected revenue to the government and retain 10% with them as collection charges.
- Permanent Settlement was introduced by Cornwallis.
- By 1820, The prices of grains in the market rose and cultivation slowly expanded.
- Ceded districts – The districts of Bellary, Anantapur, Kadapa and Kurnool were ceded to the British by the Nizam on account of debt in maintaining the British contingent.
- palegars- petty chiefs in Rayalaseema area. Palegars resisted the imposition of British rule and indulged in constant war and looting.
- Who subdued Palegars? – Thomos Monroe.
- There were total 8 Palegars.
- When did Thomas Munro was appointed as the principal Collector of Ceded districts? in November 1800.
- Ryotwari settlement – was introduced by Thomos Moroe.
- Under the Ryotwari settlement, the peasants cultivating the land were identified, their field was identified and a survey number was given to every piece of land fixing the legal ownership. The yield, price situation, market conditions and the crop cultivated was taken into account to decide the tax per acre. But, before the cultivation commenced in 1801-02, Munro made necessary advances to the ryots to purchase seeds, implements, bullocks and to repair old wells or dig new ones.
- Who constructed an anicut across the Godavari river at Dhawaleshwaram? Sir Arthur Cotton. (completed in 1849).
- When did the American civil war took place? 1861-1865. The American Civil War brought temporary benefit to Indian cotton cultivators.
Land Revenue System under Nizams
- Sarf-e-khas – The land which is directly under Nizam;s control. (About 1400 villages were directly under the Nizam as Nizam’s personal Jagir)
- 19. Peshkash – The land revenue share which is paid to Nizam by the Zamindars and Deshmukhs.
- In the Hyderabad state, there were about 1500 Jagirs.
- In the Hyderabad state, there were over 6535 villages and 14 Samsthanams over 497 villages.
- Rusum – The money paid by Zamindars to Nizam.
23. Vetti – Forced unpaid labour.
- Visnuri Ramachandra Reddy and Jannareddy Pratapa Reddy are the land lords who owned more than one lakh acres of land.
- In Mahabub Nagar and Nalgonda there were 550 landlords who own more than 1000 acres of land.
- Ganjam famine – Most severe famine occurred in Andhra, during the years 1865-66.
- 1920-22 – the peasants of Awadh in Uttar Pradesh took out huge processions to protest against the zamindars.