League of Nations, its history, organs, victories and failures
Full History of League of Nations in English
League of Nations was established due to Treaty of Versailles. Due to huge loss of money, and man power in World War I, all the countries longed for peace. Woodrow Wilson was the first person to speak about the need for an international organisation to prevent future wars. League of nations emerged from such thoughts.
The constitution of League of Nations is also called as covenant. Representatives of 19 countries formulated the Covenant, under the leadership of USA president Woodrow Wilson. It consists of 26 articles. If any country invades on other country disobeying the covenant, all the members of League of Nations consider it as their mutual enemy.
Aims of League of Nations
There are 4 important points in the preamble of League of Nations.
- Preventing future wars.
- International co-operation.
- International peace.
- To see that all the pacts of Paris peace conference are implemented properly.
By signing the covenant, all the countries become members of League of Nations. Membership was given to neutral countries and colonies also. Any member can withdraw from the league with a prior notice of 2years.
Organs of League of Nations
Initially there were 3 important organs to League of Nations.
- Assembly (మహాసభ), 2. Council సమితి మండలి, 3. Permanent Secretariat సచివాలయం.
Later International Court of Justice, International Labour Organisation also formed.
Annual meetings were conducted in Geneva. All the member countries can participate in it. Every country can send up to 3 representatives, but only one vote was given to a country. League of Nations was met for the first time on 15 November 1920.
Council is the executive body of League of Nations. It consists of 9 members., 5 permanent and 4 for short term. United States of America, England, France, Italy, Japan were the permanent members of League of Nations. In the year 1922, America joined as the member.
Duties of Council:
* Decreasing the number of arms.
* Studying the reports of colonies which are under the protection of LoN.
* Protecting the members from invasions.
* Settling international disputes.
* Safeguarding the interests of minority countries. (in this context minority doesn’t mean Muslim / Christian).
It is located in Geneva. It consists of 11 departments with a secretary for each department. It registers, publishes, and preserves the papers related to pacts between the member countries. It registers, publishes, and preserves the papers of non member countries also, if they voluntarily approach the LoN. These papers are published in the English, French, and also in the languages of the countries which are involved in the pacts. Secretariat registered about 5000 treaties.
International Court of Justice
Legal wing of LoN was International Court of Justice. League of Nation was established on 20 December 1920, in Hague. It is also called as Permanent Court of Justice. It remains open 365 days.
It redefines, explains international treaties.
Gives legal advises.
Guides LoN Assembly and Council.
International Labour Organisation
It is an autonomous organisation. It works for the welfare of the labourers. Its office is located in Geneva. General Assembly, Administrative wing, International Labour Office are its organs.
A. General Assembly
There are 4 members in the ILO Assembly. 1. One Representative from labourers. 2. One representative from capitalists. 3&4 are representatives from government. It does not make laws. Welfare of labourers is the aim of ILO General Assembly.
B. Administrative Wing
There are 32 members in Administrative wing. 8 represent the labourers. 8 represent the factory owners, 16 government representatives. Its office is located in Geneva. It studies the living conditions of labourers and keeps in touch with voluntary labour organisation.
C. International Labour Office
International Labour Office is in operation even after LoN perished. It evolved as a special institution of UNO. It takes care of laborers’ fixed working hours, leaves, rights, compensations, health amenities, hygiene, and night time work.
Victories of LoN
LoN prevented some minor disputes among various countries.
LoN Cleared the conflict between Sweden and Finland regarding Aland Islands.
LoN Cleared the dispute between Germany and Poland regarding Silesia. It demarcated boarder between Germany and Poland boarders.
Cleared 3 disputes in Balkan.
Saved Albania from Yugoslavia invasion.
Saved Greece from Italy.
Cleared dispute between Greece and Bulgaria.
Cleared Iraq – Turkey boarder dispute.
Cleared Poland – Czechoslovakia boarder dispute.
Cleared a dispute rose between Peru – Columbia regarding Leticia. Leticia was handed over to Columbia.
Social and Economic Victories
Monetary help to Central Europe and Balkan countries.
Tried to improve the health of the people by distributing medicines. Made efforts to eradicate Malaria, Cholera, Smallpox, and TB.
Helped for international intellectual co-operation.
Helped for the development of sciences.
It played key role in developing international co-operation.
It failed to produce long lasting results. The efforts to prevent wars were short lived. LoN ceased to exist with the commencement of World War II in the year 1939.