Role of Lenin in the development of Russia
Full name of Lenin is Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin. Lenin put to practice the ideology of Carl Marks and provided intellectual leadership to Russian revolution and paved way for the success of socialism in Russia.
Books authored by Lenin
- The Development of Capitalism in Russia (1899)
- A pamphlet named ‘What Is To Be Done? in 1902’.
Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. Lenin became a revolutionary after the execution of his on the accusation of making an assassination attempt on Czar Alexander III. From this moment onwards Lenin started changing his names from time to time.
Lenin was suspended from Kazan University in the year 1887 for undertaking revolutionary activities. Lenin acquired Law degree from St. Peter’s Burg University with private study.
Lenin toured European countries to study Marks ideology. He met Marxists in Switzerland. Lenin started labour movements in Russia with the aim of achieving labour rights. For this, he was deported to Siberia. As the government did not consider him as a serious threat, he was sent to a farmer’s house. There Lenin had opportunity to meet his friends, swim and hunt. Lenin married Krupskaya during his days in exile. Lenin escaped from Siberia and took shelter in European countries. After his exile ended Lenin started association himself closely with Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP). Lenin started a news paper named Iskra. ‘Iskra’ means ‘spark’. Iskra sparked revolution in Russia.
Lenin ended his exile life and went to Petrograd leaving Finland. He received grand welcome from the people of Petrograd.
Lenin proclaimed April Thesis.
Lenin over threw Kerensky’s government and established Soviet Government Council.
Lenin was helped by Trotsky and Stalin.
After the Russian revolution Lenin attempted to withdraw Russia from the World War I. Russian army came to be called Red Army and the enemy’s army as White Army.
With armistice with the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary, Russia tried to withdrew from World War I. Lenin ended war on 3 March 1918, with Brest-Litovsk treaty with Germany. Russia achieved this at the cost of many factories and fertile lands.
Lenin called for International Bolshevik Revolution.
1919 – Russia Successfully retaliated the invasion of Poland on Russia. Poland invaded due to the instigation from France.
Between 1917-1920, Lenin Government successfully suppressed anti revolutionary Czarist and Menshevik armies.
1919 – With the help of foreign powers Alexander Kolchak revolted in Russia. Red Army successfully suppressed the revolt and hanged Kolchak. With this Bolsheviks became undisputed power.
Red Army secretly assassinated Czar Nicholas II and his family.
30 December 1922 – There were so many ethnic groups in Russia. With the merging of soviets of various ethnic groups, Russia emerged as Union of Soviet Socialist Republic – USSR.
In the year 1918, Lenin gave autonomous powers to the soviets through a constitution.
With out any discrimination, Lenin granted adult franchise to everyone.
In the year 1918, Bolshevik party emerged as the Russian Communist Party. Remaining all the political parties were banned.
A Polit Bureau, which consists 9 members makes and implements the policies. Party and Government work with mutual co-operation.
Promotional tools like Press, Cinema, and Radio disseminate socialist ideals. Communist Dictatorship was achieved as the Government was run with communist principles.
- ‘Cheka’ was a Bolshevik Secret Force to suppress internal enemies.
- Feudalism was banned and land was distributed to landless poor.
- Private property was banned.
- By distributing the land, rich were eradicated and class less society was achieved.
- With night schools, illiteracy in factory workers educated.
New Economic Policy
Lenin’s economic policy showed adverse effect on Russian economy. Labour Unions failed in successfully running the factories. Peasants also faced problems. At the same time famine occurred. It forced Lenin to reduce the intensity of his policy. With slight changes to Marks economic policy, Lenin introduced a New Economic Policy with a combination of Socialism and Capitalism. Heavy industries, and mines will continue under Government ownership. Private persons were allowed to own small industries. A new class named NEPmen were emerged who dealt with trading. Farmers were given right to sell their product, provided they paid tax to the Government. Farmers worked with increased enthusiasm, which resulted in the increase of production.
Lenin made commercial agreements with England, Austria and France. He allowed foreign investments.
Lenin introduced new currency to control inflation.
To develop Russia, Lenin took the aid of Marks writings. Lenin stepped forward with the ideas of Marks. When he established new government, he realized that, as it is implementation of Marks ideals is not possible. With wisdom, Lenin introduced timely amendments to develop Russia.