some aspects of telangaanaa economy

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SOME ASPECTS OF TELANGANA ECONOMY- Ramesh Panneeru
Nizam, the ruler of the erstwhile Hyderabad state was assisted by the officers like Deshmukh, Deshpande, Desai, Zamindar, Jagirdar, Patel, Patwari and Mali patel. Those officers were entrusted with the administration of the villages. Nizam appointed to the posts only those people who were loyal to him irrespective of their administrative skills and their compassion towards humanity. These official and unofficial landlords looted the local people in all possible ways and forced them to engage in the works of construction of their fortlices which they considered were symbols of their power. This type of fortlices is seen not only in Vaddicherla but they are very common in all the Telangana villages. These fortalices are called “Gadis” in the local language. One must enter into the fortalice at his one risk. If anyone receives a call from the fortalice, he almost loses hope on retuning back alive. This was an example for the landlords` cruelty. Visnur village deshmukh Ramachandra Reddy, Errabadu Deshmukh village deshmukh Jenna Reddy Prathap Reddy, Kalluru Doralu (lords), Narsapuram doralu and Rajapeta lords were such cruel officers of Nizam who belong to the first level. Nalgonda district Janagama Taluk Vaddicherla-Nawabpeta Jagirdar Bellapu Ravvala Hanmantha Rao belongs to the second level of officers. Hanmantha Rao was born in a Maharastrian Brahmin family. He worked under Nizam Mir Mahabub Ali Khan. Hanmantha Rao came to prominence as a walking revenue record. He can tell all the revenue records without referring the account books. During those times (1869-1911) on the occasion of Hanmantha Rao`s son Sitaram`s birthday he got the Janagam Taluk village Vaddicherla (for sometime it was called as Mahabub Nagar), Wanaparthi, Kothapalli, Fateh shapur and Bhanaji peta as gift from Mir Mahbub Ali Khan. He was so clever to continue as a Jagir and the same time he made sure that his descendants will get the post of accountant at Nizam`s durbar. After Hanmantha Rao, his son sitarama Rao and his grand son Raghavendar Rao worked as accountants at Nizam`s durbar.(1) After getting the Jagir of five villages, in the year 1870, Hanmantha Rao bought some land form the ancestors of Mothe Laxma Reddy, who were the watandars (proprietors) of the village. On the western side of the Vaddicherla village, in a land of four acres Hanmantha Rao got constructed a big building. Few days after the construction of the fortalice the Nawab, who came there to pay a visit to `elapogula Durga` on the eve of Sayyid Abbas Shah Wali fair, also visited the new town built by Hanmantha Rao on his request. Hanmantha Rao offered feast to the Nawab and as an honour to the Nawab, he named the town as Nawabpeta. From that day onwards has been called as Nawabpeta. (2) Before the construction of Nawabpeta there used to be another fortalice which was constructed by the ancestors of Mothe Laxma Reddy. Since 1825 as revenue officers Mothe Laxma Reddy, Ranga Reddy, Gunda Reddy and Banda Reddy exercised their power as revenue collectors in their Watan Villages Velmajala, Koorella and Nawabpeta. Vaddicherla was centre for their activities. During those days the Nawabpeta was and affiliate village to the Vaddicherla and those watandars constructed huge fortalice in ½ acre of land. On the eastern side of the fortalice they constructed a big rampart with 20 ft. height width and length. The rampart provided protection to the villagers from the bandicoots, who used to loot the village frequently. The inhabitants of the village said that there used to be a soldier on the rampart with a big drum and trumpet like instrument to give alarm and to make villagers ready for battle when ever the bandicoots attack on the village. (3) During those days this type of fortalices were common thing in Telangana villages that is why the common saying “where there is a fortalice there will be a rampart is very popular in Telangana. In course of time most of the fortalices and ramparts got degenerated. These fortalices are still standing there as a silent witnesses to the dictatorship of the Nawabs, feudalism, the battles of villagers against the bandicoots and the hardworking nature of the people. Jagirdar Hanmantha Rao`s son Sitarama Rao married Vasantha Malathi. They were blessed with two children named Raghavendra Rao and Radhabai. It was a high time for the jagirdar. Much prosperity was seen in the villages and jagirdar collected more revenue and became economically strong. Nawab appointed some wasooldars (Assistant Revenue Officers) to assist the Jagirdar. With the help of the Wasooldars, jagirdar Sitarama Rao appointed his son Raghavendar Rao as Jagirdar in his place and at the same time he got ownership rights over the thousand acres of land of the six villages. To make everything run smoothly nawab Mir Osaman Ali Kahn sent Badwel VenkatRao to Nawabpet as Muqtar-e-Am (power of attorney) to assist Raghavendar Rao. (4) Revenue administration and law and order were the responsibilities of Muqtar-e-Am. Assistant Revenue officer assisted him in his duties. As Raghvender Rao`s wife died, Childless Raghavendar Rao had to marry Malathi bai. Construction of Fortalice and other details: Between 1930-31 Jagirdar left the fortalice built by his grand father Hanmantha Rao and got constructed a new fortalice on the eastern side of the old fortalice. This new fortalice was bigger than the old one, was surrounded by four acres of wall and the main entrance faces the south. Its foundation is 10ft deep, 5ft wide, height of 15ft and thickness of 3ft. the material used for the construction is a mixture of lime, clay and sand particles which lasts long. We see the relieves on the main entrances of the fortalice with 20ft height, 2-2 cobra snake couples pulling on either side in a crescent shape, 2-2 parrots talking to each other on tender branches, art and architecture style has been showed clearly and widely on the front and rear side of the entrance wall. On the left side in the front of the fortalice, a mud fort has been built with 5ft thickness, approximately 25ft height in a 2 acres area. Natives opined that a well in the south-west is used for watering the fruit gardens of that mud-fort. (5) Jagirdar Raghavendar Rao, his wife Malathi bai and Muqtar-e-Am B. VenkatRao took great care in the construction of the fortalice. Under the supervision of the Engineers called from Hyderabad, a strong fortalice was built. In an area of half acre the ground floor had 2 big verandahs and in dome shape8 rooms were built. Each room had big windows protected by iron rods. Strong black wood was used for making the windows and doors. 1st floor also was built on the same lines. In the first floor, dancing room, kitchen, bed room, meeting-hall and study room were there. Rampe Laxmaiah, who is present watch man to the fortalice, explained how the fortalice was used. In each floor there were two bath rooms at the hind side of the fortalice. There was a tank on the right side of the bungalow which was used for community bathing. This tank was of 40ft. depth, 20 ft. width, and 30ft. length. On the western side of the tank steps were built and a way was constructed which was a special feature to the bungalow, which leads straight from bungalow to the tank. (6) That magnificent building was constructed as a symbol of power of Ragahavendar Rao and Malathi bai. They squeezed poor people’s blood and subjected them to all sorts of torture to make them involve in the construction work. Natives opined that it is not true even if some one says that they were paid pea nuts. (7) They paid nothing for the construction work along with the fortalice work the jagirdar employed his sheridars Sayyid Jamal, Bhima Raja, Rampe Laxmaiah and fifteen other laboureres in agriculture work. During those days Jagirdar had 100 acres of fertile agriculture land, 50 acres of Khuski and 50 acres of fruit gardens in Nawabpeta and Vaddicherla villages. Jagirdars had 50 cows, 15 female buffalos, 30 oxen and 20 buffalos. On the whole in a year 1000 bags of rice in two shifts comes to the fortalice. Ragahavendar Rao`s sheridar Rampe Laxmaiah explained Jagirdar`s passion for drama. Jagirdar Ragahavendar Rao was a very good artiste. He had great passion towards stage performance. He provided everything to 15 drama artists in his fortalice and used to perform in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras cities. Ragahavendar Rao always performed only the role of a king. Muthyalavathi, Venkatalaxmi, Gundala Laxmi, Venkatamma, balamani, Bangaru theega were the female dancers. Paidi raju, kondigadu and some others also part of the drama team. Touched by his passion towards drama Nizam Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan preserved Ragahavendar Rao`s Sherwani, Rumi cap and boots in Salarjung museum after his death in the year 1933. Construction of Temple: In the year 1933 Raghavender Rao died without any heir. Malathi bai adopted her sister`s son and named him as Suresh Babu and looked after the administrative affairs with the help of Muqtar-e-Am Venkatrav. In the memory of her late husband she started the construction of a temple in 1947. In the place of a small Hanuman temple she built a bigger one and got finished the construction by the year 1953. in 1955 she got finished a rampart around the temple. The temple is presently famous as Sri Kodandarama swami temple. Local people said that the Mothe Soma Reddy family has donated 13 acres of land to the temple. It is a tradition that Raghavender Rao`s family members perform the marriage ceremony of Lord Rama, every year on the eve of Sri Ramanavami(8) and they also offer prayers at Shiva temple, Hanuman temple, the Maisamma, temple which is located in the fortalice, Bhulaxmi temple, Nagendra temple and the Shiva temple which were located on the North-west side of the Kodandarama swami temple. Bellapuravvala Malathi Bai bore all the expenses of construction of the temple. This shows how much austere she was. And in those days she acted as a founder chairman to this temple and she appointed an executive officer as a temporaru executive officer (Manager) a Junior Assistant, a Record Assistant, a sweeper, an attender and four priests. (9) from 1953-2009 1) Uttalooru Pardha Saradhi, 2) Daripelli Sundaracharyulu, 3) Daripelli Bhashyakacharyulu, 4) Manthraratnam Rangacharyulu, 5) Manthraratnam Laxminarasimhacharyulu acted as head priests to the temple. In the year 1969-1970 this temple was brought under the purview of the endowments and the temple administrative committee was accepted by the government. During Nandamuri Taraka RamaRao`s chief ministership Challa kondaiah commission banned the hereditary rights according to 30/87 act and appointed B.V Suresh babu as the founder trustee and committee member to the temple. For the maintenance of the temple 7 acres at Vaddicherla, 13 acres at Nawabpeta were donated. By keeping in view the high expenses to the temple and other ceremonies Malathi bai and Moqtar-e-Am B. Venkat Rao established a fair in the premises of the temple with the permission of P. Venkateshwar Rao, then the Collector of Nalgonda district. The local people said that on the eve of Sriraama navami, every year in the month of either March or April on Friday they conduct a fair (10). They have also set up a library in the village. IMPORTANCE OF NAWABPETA FAIR Nawabpeta fair is one of the prominent fairs in Telangana. Since 1952 till now the fair is conducted on every Friday. In Kodad, Suryapeta, Arvapalli, Tirumalagiri, Motkur, Tungaturti, Narkatpelli, Kondamadugu, Yadagiri gutta, Palakurthi, Cheryala, Chilpur, Zafargad, Jeedikal, Narmetta, Bachannapeta, Vardannapeta, Mahbuba bad, Torrur, Komuravalli, Kommaala, Ilone, Katrapelli, Parkala, Husnabad, Mulkanoor, Nangunoor, Siddipeta, Jagadevpur, and Rudraram also similar fair are conducted.(11) These fairs are conducted to meet the people’s social and economic needs. Different varieties of provisions, cattle, vegetables, food grains and clothes are sold in the fair. Nawabpeta fair is famous for its cattle trade. (12) this fair was conducted to collect revenue for the maintenance of Sri Kodandarama swami temple. From 1952-1969 Sri Daripelli Rangacharyulu acted as a manager to the fair. He was appointed to the post by Srimathi Bellapuravvala Malathi bai. After 1969 the temple was brought under the purview of endowments and the endowments department appointed full time employees. The priests were appointed on monthly wage basis and an executive officer was appointed to look after the fair. Buyers, seller and brokers come to this fair not only from hundreds of villages around Nawabpeta but also from other districts Karimnagar, Nalgonda and Medak. Recently in the year 2009 they introduced tender system and the maintenance of the fair went into the hands of highest bidder from the executive officer. Sattaiah Yadav, a native of Nakrekal of Nalgonda district, won the tender for Rs.15,04,300 (fifteen lakhs four thousand and three hundred rupees). He will have to look after the maintenance for one year. Along with this tenders also called for ropes, grass and other things. From the money incurred from all the tenders 15% will go to the village panchayath, about 1.5 Lakh rupees is allocated for Sri Ramanavami and Lord Rama`s marriage, appropriate amount is allocated to the temple staff, priests and the temple maintenance and if any money is left they deposit it with the bank.(13) Every week some fine breeds of animals like Murra (Gowdi), Mysore, jearsy, Kodada, Ongole breed cows and oxen and along with them male and female buffalos also brought to this fair for trade. On the whole every week 5000 to 6000 cattle come to this fair. (14) Buyers and sellers must consult the mediators to get their work done. There it was made compulsory to consult the mediator. Without the involvement of the mediator nothing can be done in the fair. The sellers don’t earn much money in the fair but the mediators and contractors earn much from the transactions in the fair. For most of the villagers of Nawabpeta the fair is a main source of income. From Nawabpeta itself about 200 intermediaries come to the fair to deal with the animal trade. From this it is apparent that the fair is back bone of the village economy. Though Malathi bai constructed the temple and set up a market to the economic and other needs of the temple, today the fair has become main source of income for the villagers. At the time of setting up of the fair she might not be aware that one day it will provide bread and butter to the villagers and have place in the history. Nizams administration had medieval feudal characters and the deshmukhs, land lords stood like strong pillars for the tyrannical rule of the Nizams. Whatsoever in the reignal years of the Nizams who built fortalices, ramparts, temples and fairs like Nawabpeta and other public utility buildings. Nizams, their organizations and its functions all have tasted the earth, but the fortalices, ramparts, temple and fairs like Nawabpeta are still stood there as living testimony to their dictatorial and looting policies and the hardships of the people during their reign. __________********___________**********___________General HistoryTelangaanaa history
Some aspects of Telangana Economy

1 Comment

  1. It will be good if you post the photos of the Gadis.
    Dr K Prabhakar rao

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